jurisdiction: This is a crucial concept, for legal gk as well as legal reasoning. jurisdiction is the power of the court to try a case, or entertain a matter. this word can also be used in another sense, to indicate the area of power of any person/authority. for example, matters of homeland security is not within the jurisdiction of the chief-of-staff of the army. it is within the jurisdiction of the home ministry.
in case of courts, there can be different types of jurisdiction - subject matter jurisdiction (criminal courts can not try civil cases/ constitutional matters, they lack jurisdiction), territorial jurisdiction (bombay HC can not entertain a civil suit, the cause of action in which has arisen in kolkata), pecuniary jurisdiction (a sub-divisional court can not hear a case involving a dispute of property valued at 5 crores, but district court can).
Original jurisdiction is the right to hear a case at the first instance, and appellate jurisdiction is power to hear an appeal. In case of criminal cases, HC never has an original jurisdiction. that is why a criminal case can not be directly filed in the HC. however, it has appellate jurisdiction, that is why it can hear appeals coming from lower courts on criminal cases. the supreme court has the following types of jurisdiction:
a) original jurisdiction to hear cases under article 32 of the constitution (writ petitions) and in disputes between states/union of India
b) appellate jurisdictions: in civil and criminal cases. in case of a death sentence, a person has a right to be heard in appeal in the SC. it is mandatory for a death sentence to go through at least one appeal.
c) advisory jurisdiction: can advise the president on points of law - art. 143
d) Special leave petition: can hear almost any case under art 136