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Paragraph- I

The impact of technical advancement in armaments on man, needs to be analyzed with a rational mind, and heart free from prejudices of any kind towards modernisation. The most noticeable impact of this development certainly has been the loss of immunity from violence for successive generations ever since the invention of gunpowder. In modern times, the presence of technically advanced arms, not only at the fronts but also among the civilian population, has vastly undermined the value of human life, and endangered the very entity of those virtues of self-restraint and discretion, on which. a peaceful and amiable society rests. However, an unbiased view of the present scenario, would refrain one from attributing the rising trends of violence to the availability of technically superior weapons, for one must not overlook the fact that Necessity is the mother of invention. Every stage in the development of armaments has been marked by its distinct impact on society. When man fought with stones and his bare hands, the society was not yet compact. The discovery of metal and the use of spears, knives and arrows indicate the stage of the formation of small kingdoms. Fire continued to be an effective weapon of destruction. When man introduced the cavalry into the army and improved the strategies of making war, some small kingdoms gave away to form empires, but with no revolutionary advances in armaments forthcoming, the political structure of society remained mare or less stagnant for the many coming centuries. The next significant development was the use of gunpowder, which could be used to perform acts which were then thought to be impossible. Gunpowder was used to form the ammunition of several guns and canons. This sudden advances in weaponry not only facilitated the control of a large mass of people by relatively few armed men that helping to form strong empires, but the availability of the new technology to a select few nations enabled the formation of colonies in continents which did not have access to the modernized technologies of warfare. Modern technological advances in armaments aided the formation of nation states in Europe. The extensive use of the fire-power lent a lethal edge to the naval power which proved to be the greatest asset to any nation in the 19th century. Small United Nations States of Europe with strong navies, modern arms and disciplined men gained control of lands in foreign continents far greater in areas than the parent countries.

1.Necessity is the mother of invention means

A. where there is mother there IS invention

B. when necessity arises invention IS done

C. most of the invention are preplanned

D. nothing happens without creating congenial environment

2. The invention of modern weapons have resulted into

A. loss of immunity from war in the society

B. successive wars for the last two centuries.

C. arms race among the nations

D. loss of life and property every now and then

3. Small kingdoms turned into big empires, after

A. the invention of cavalry and canons and its introduction into the army

B.  the introduction of nuclear arms into the army

C the end of the use of knives, arrows and swords

D. the end of the 19th century

4. The style of the passage is

A. informative

B. analytical

C. retrospective

D.provocative 

Answers-

1. b

2. a

3. a

4. c

Paragraph- II


Some religious teachers have taught that Man is made up of a body and a soul: But they have been silent about the Intellect. Their followers try to feed the body on earth and to save soul from perdition after death: But they neglected the claims of the mind. Bread for the body and Virtue for the soul: These are regarded as the indispensable requisites of human welfare here and hereafter. Nothing is said about knowledge and education. Thus Jesus Christ spoke much of feeding the hungry, healing the sick, and converting the sinners: But he never taught the duty of teaching the ignorant and increasing scientific knowledge. He himself was not a well-educated man, and intellectual pursuits were beyond his horizon. Gautam Buddha also laid stress on morality, meditation and asceticism, but he did not attach great importance to history, science, art or literature. St. Ambrose deprecated scientific studies and wrote, Tel discuss the nature and position of the earth does not help us in our hope for life to come. St. Basil said very frankly and foolishly, It is not a matter of interest for us whether the earth is a sphere or a cylinder or disc. Thomas Carlyle also followed the Christian traditions when he declared that he honoured only two men and no third: The manual labour and the religious teacher. He forgot the scientist, the scholar and the artist. The cynics of Greece despised education at last?


1. What have the religious teachers taught in the past?

A. That man is made up of body only

B. That man is made up of soul only.

C. That man is made up of bubbles

D. That man is made up of body and soul together

2.What is food for the soul?

A. Bread

B. Virtue

C.  Vice

D. Education

3.The following philosophers occur in the passage. But they are not in correct order. Correct the order (l). Jesus Christ (II). Gautam Buddha (III) St. Ambrose (IV). Thomas Carlyle M St. Basil

A. I, II, III, IV, V

B. I, III, IV, V, II

C. I, II, III, V, IV

D. II, I, III, IV, V

4. Intellectual pursuits have been neglected because: (I) they are unnecessary and superfluous (II) they make people dwarf (III) they lead people to hell

A. Only I is correct

B. Only II is correct

C. Only III is correct

D. Only I and II are correct 

5.The style of the passage is

A. narrative

B. expository

C. critical

D. Analytical 

Answers-

1. d

2. b

3. c

4. a

5. a

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