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Foreign words and Phrases (06-07-2015)

1. Ab antiquo- fromancient times or from olden times
“Indians have been God-fearing ab antiquo.”

2. Ab initio- from the beginning
“Study French ab initio if you want to pass.”

3. Ad hoc- for this special purpose; done or setup solely in response to a specific
situation or problem “ad hoc measures”

4. Ad infinitum- endlessly; without limit
“Nobody can live ad infinitum.”

5. Ad interim- temporarily; for the meantime
“She has become the captain of the team, adinterim.”

6. Ad nauseum- to an extreme or annoying extent
“He went on and on ad nauseum about his new car.”

7. Aficionado- somebody who is enthusiastic andknowledgeable about something; an ardent supporter
“They're true aficionados, far better informedabout the game than the men around them.”

8. Alma mater- the place or institution where oneis educated
“Sharon is our choice, and she is excited aboutreturning to her alma mater.”

9. Alumni- old students of an institution “We are the alumniof Boys’ High School.”
(Alumna is a woman graduate; alumnus is a malegraduate)

10. Alibi- accused’s claim of having been elsewhere
“He was able to prove an alibi which could not beshaken.”

11. Alpha and omega- the beginning and end ofsomething; also the most important aspect of something
“The alpha and omega of a soldier’s life is thepreservation of the freedom of his country.”

12. Albeit- though;
“It was a tough, albeit rewarding job.”

13. Alter ego- a very close and trusted friend ;also a second side to somebody’s personality, 
different from the one mostpeople know
“Karan Johar is Shahrukh Khan’s alter ego.”

14. Annus mirabilis- a remarkable year; a year ofwonderful events
“2011 is an annus mirabilis for all Indians asIndia won the Cricket World Cup this
year.”

15. A priori- based on something known; not basedon prior study or examination
“an a priori judgment”

16. A posteriori- deriving knowledge fromexperience
“Should nature signify the existence of things inthem, we could never know it either
a priori or a posteriori.”

17. Agent provocateur- undercover agent; somebodyemployed to gain the trust of
suspects and then tempt them to do somethingillegal so that they can be arrested
“Leonardo DiCaprio plays the role of an agentprovocateur in the movie Body of
Lies.”

18. Avant-garde- artistically innovative,experimental or unconventional
“Dan Brown’s work is very unusual, evenavant-garde.”

19. Au courant- knowing latest developments;up-to-date
“Constant revision keeps you au courant.”

20. Bete noire- a thing or person of great dislike
“Its gas-guzzling reputation has made it the betenoire of environmental activists.”

21. Bona fide- authentic; genuine; sincere andhonest
“a bona fide offer”

22. Bourgeois- associated with affluent middleclass people, who are often characterized
as conventional, conservative or materialistic inoutlook
“Golf is often referred to as a bourgeois sport.”

23. Bon mot- a witty remark
“Such bon mots were indications of his love oflanguage.”

24. Bon vivant- somebody who lives luxuriously andenjoys good food and wine
“Vijay Mallya is a true bon vivant.”

25. Coup d’état- to change a government byrebellion; seizure of political power
especially by the military
“These days coup d’état is a common phenomenonamong Asian countries.”

26. Carte blanche- full freedom of action; fulldiscretionary power; freedom to act
“She has been given carte blanche to make whateverchanges she thinks necessary.”

27. Casus belli- a situation or event that causes,or is the pretext for starting, a war or
other conflict
“The casus belli for the Spanish-American War wasthe sinking of the USS Maine.”

28. Charge d’ affaires- a diplomat who takes theplace of an ambassador or minister
when he is absent from his office
“As the Foreign Minister is sick, Mr. P.C.Srivastava is the present charge d’
affaires.”

29. Coup de grace- death blow; final blow
“Her failure in the Clat exam was the coup degrace to her hopes of doing law.”

30. Cause célèbre- famous case or controversy
“The 2G scam has become a huge cause célèbre.”

31. De jure- legally; by law
“He is the heir of this kingdom de jure.”

32. De novo- afresh; again
“Having found the lower court’s analysis wrong,the appellate court undertook a
review de novo.”

33. De facto- in fact; real; as though rightful
“the de facto rules of the country”

34. De rigueur- strictly required by the currentfashion; a must
“Six pack abs is de rigueur in the modellingindustry.”

35. Dramatis personae- characters in a play orstory
“The dramatis personae of this story should bememorable.”

36. Doppelganger- somebody similar to another person;ghost identical to living person
“I don’t want to hear cases about doppelgangers;it scares me to death.”

37. Denouement- a final part of a story or dramain which everything is made clear and
no questions or surprises remain
“the gripping denouement of the championship”

38. En bloc- altogether; all at the same time
“The BJP walked out of the Parliament en bloc.”

39. En route- on the way to a destination
“I met Jayant en route to the station.”

40. Ex officio- by virtue of one’s office, post orposition
“Heads of state are often ex officio heads of thearmed forces.”

41. Exempli Gratia- for example(e.g.)
“I have the laboratory equipment, e.g., beakers,thermometers and test tubes, that we
need.”

42. Ex parte- involving only one side
“The case was heard ex parte.”

43. Ex post facto- applied retroactively

“Although public sentiment may side with thevictim, a criminal's sentence generally cannot
be changed as a result of an ex post facto law.”

44. Fait accompli- a work surely done;accomplished fact, not reversible
“Anna Hazare’s fast has made the Lokpal Bill afait accompli.”

45. Fiancé- engaged man
“You are Lara’s fiancé.”

46. Fiancée- engagedwoman
“Miss Lara is my fiancée.”

47. Faux pas- a social blunder; an embarrassingmistake
“We did our best not to commit any faux pas onthe stage.”

48. Flagrante delicto- in the act; in blazingoffence
“He was caught flagrante delicto while trying toassault the young lady.”

49. Glasnost- policy of openness; a policy thatcommits a government or organization to
greater accountability, openness and anddiscussion(given by Mikhail Gorbachev;
also check perestroika)
“We should wake up and implement glasnost andperestroika in the judiciary”

50. Haute couture- exclusive and expensiveclothing made for an individual customer by
a fashion designer; the leading dressmakingestablishments in the world of fashion
“Check out the new sketches of long thin modelswearing haute couture.”

51. Hoi polloi- the masses; the ordinary people
“Anna Hazare’s movement was joined by the hoipolloi of all walks of life.”

52. Inter alia- among other things
“In summing-up the judge said, inter alia, thatthe defence had presented a strong
argument for dismissal of the case.”

53. Ipso facto- as the result of a particularfact; by that very fact
“The only son ipso facto becomes the owner ofhis father’s property.”

54. Laissez faire- non-interference by thegovernment; refusal to interfere in other
people’s affairs
“The mayor seemed to take a laissez faireattitude toward the casinos in his town.”

55. Lingua franca- the language of the masses;language used for convenience
“Hindi is the lingua franca of India.”

56. Locus standi- any recognised right orofficial status; right to participate in a
process
“Unless I have a locus standi, I cannot give myopinion in this matter.”

57. Mala fide- with a bad or ill intention; badfaith
“His reason behind hiding the truth was malafide.”

58. Magnum opus- greatest work; best work
“Ra.One is Shahrukh Khan’s magnum opus.”

59. Modus operandi- a way of doing something;the mode of working
“The FBI could not understand the modus operandiof this criminal.”

60. Mea culpa- expressing guilt or fault; formalapology
“Monica’s grudging mea culpa failed to soothefeelings.”

61. Nota bene- observe carefully; note well;take notice
“We are going to the Himalayas in January, nota bene it is very cold at that time of
year, so make sure to bring warm clothes.”

62. Nom de plume- pen name; false name used by awriter
“Charles Dodgson is best known today by his nomde plume, Lewis Carroll.”

63. Nouveau riche- somebody with newly acquiredwealth
“I have seen some nouveau riches in my village.”

64. Par excellence- of highest quality or of thevery best kind
“Jagjit Singh was a par excellence ghazalsinger.”

65. Prima facie- on the first impression; atfirst sight
“’Prima facie, the lawsuit seems spurious,’ saidJustice Markandey Katju.”

66. Per capita- for each person; of oneindividual
“The per capita of an Indian is far less thanthat of an American.”

67. Persona non grata- unacceptable person;often a diplomat who is unacceptable to a
foreign government
“We have no grounds to declare the Iraqidiplomats personas non grata.”
(‘persona grata’ is an acceptable or welcomedperson)

68. Pro rata- in fixed proportion; according toa certain rate
“If the costs of production rise, prices aresure to increase pro rata.”

69. Proletariat- the working class; the class ofwage-earning workers in society
“The proletariats often lead a miserable life”

70. Perestroika- Soviet reform policy initiatedby Mikhail Gorbachev; any political,
bureaucratic or economic restructuring
“We should wake up and implement glasnost andperestroika in the judiciary.”

71. Pro bono- done without any payment orcompensation
“The Legal Aid Committe of our universityoffered their services pro bono.”

72. Quid pro quo- something for something;returning of favour often in a spirit of
cooperation
“Let’s have an equal exchange my friend, quidpro quo.”
(‘Gratuitous’ is the opposite of quid pro quo)

73. Raison d’être- real purpose; something thatgives meaning or purpose to somebody’s
life; or the justification for something’sexistence
“It is difficult to understand the raison d’êtreof terrorists in India.”

74. Rendezvous- meeting; private meeting place
“Sail away to a romantic rendezvous thissummer.”

75. Sub judice- being examined in court; inconsideration by a court
“The case of increment in the salaries ofteachers is sub judice.”

76. Sine qua non- an essential condition orprerequisite
“The suspension of industrial activity isconsidered a sine qua non for talks to
proceed.”

77. Sang-froid- remaining calm in the face ofdanger; calmness under pressure
“Being a tough man, he always maintainssang-froid.”

78. Schadenfreude- malicious or smug pleasuretaken in somebody else’s misfortune;
“To feel envy is human, to savour schadenfreudeis devilish.”

79. Sine die- for an indefinite period
“The Sports Committee was adjourned sine die.”

80. Status quo- the condition or state ofaffairs that currently exists; social situation as it
is now
“There is no desire to change the current statusquo.”

81. Sotto voce- in a quiet voice or tone
“The actress whispered in the actor’s ears sottovoce that she could not endure living
away from him.”

82. Summum bonum- the greatest or supreme good;of high goals
“Nirvana is the summum bonum of Buddhism andgoal of the Eightfold Path.”

83. Tete a tete- a private conversation betweentwo people; informal talk
“She had a tete a tete with her boss.”

84. Ultra vires- beyond legal capacity; notwithin powers
“I am of the opinion that the adjudicator madean intra vires error rather than one
which rendered his decision ultra vires”

85. Vice versa- the other way around; with theterms and conditions reversed
“The positive cancels out the negative and viceversa.”

86. Vis-a-vis- opposite to or face to face with;facing one another
“Rita and I were sitting vis-a-vis in thetrain.”


87. Vox populi- the voice of the people; popularopinion
“The vox populi has forced the government toroot out corruption from India.”

88. Verboten- forbidden; not allowed; prohibited
“Drinking alcohol below 25 years is verbotenhere.”

89. Viva voce- orally; oral examination
“Viva voce test may form part of theassessment.”

90. Volte-face- complete change; a suddenreversal in opinion
“I have noticed a volte-face in her behaviour.”

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