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1. Professor Lahiri must have revealed information that was embarrassing to the college. After all, to have been publicly censured by the head of the college, as Lahiri was, a professor must either have revealed information that embarrassed the college or has been guilty of gross professional negligence, and Lahiri’s professional behaviour is impeccable.
Which one of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the argument above?
a. According to company policy, employees who are either frequently absent without notice or who are habitually late receive an official warning. Since Ms. Dhinka has never received such a warning, rumours that she is habitually late must be false.
b. Any employee of Janki, Patel, and Lanu, who discussed a client with a member of the press will either be fired or demoted. But since Janki employees never discuss their clients at all, no Janki employee will ever be demoted.
c. Anyone promoted to supervisor must either have worked on the shop floor for three years or have an influential sponsor. Babu, therefore, has an influential sponsor, since he was promoted to supervisor after a year on the shop floor.
d. Anyone who is either awarded a letter of commendation or who receives a bonus must be recommended by a company officer. Simon has been recommended by a company officer and will receive a bonus, so he must not have been awarded a letter of commendation.
2. Slash and burn agriculture is the process of burning forest areas, leaving behind vegetable ash that provides fertilizer for three or four years of crops. On the cleared land nutrients come out of the soil, however, and the land is no longer good for farming. New land is then cleared by burning and the entire process starts again. Since most farming in tropical areas uses this method, forests there will eventually be permanently destroyed.
The argument depends on the assumption that:
a. Forests in tropical areas do not regenerate well enough to restore themselves once they have been cleared by the slash and burn method.
b. Other methods of agriculture are not as destructive to the environment in tropical regions as the slash and burn method is.
c. Forests in tropical areas are naturally deficient in nutrients that are needed for the growth of plants that are not native to those areas.
d. Slash and burn agriculture is most suitable for farming in tropical areas.
3. In a jurisdiction where use of headlights is optional when visibility is good, drivers who use headlights are less likely to be involved in a collision than are drivers who use headlights only when visibility is poor. Yet Highway Safety Department records show that making use of headlights mandatory at all times does nothing to reduce the overall number of collisions.
Which of the following, if true, most helps resolve the apparent discrepancy in the paragraph above?
a. In jurisdictions where use of headlights is optional when visibility is good, one driver in four uses headlights for daytime driving in good weather.
b. A law making use of headlights mandatory at all times is not especially difficult to enforce.
c. Only very careful drivers use headlights when their use is not legally required.
d. There are some jurisdictions in which it is illegal to use headlights when visibility is good.
4. Recent advances in cataract surgery show that high-technology medicine is increasing the nation’s health care costs. Cataracts are a major cause of blindness, especially in elderly people. Fifteen years ago, cataract surgery was painful and not effective all the time. Due to new technology used in cataract surgery, the surgery now restores vision drastically and is not as expensive. These two factors have caused the number of cataract surgeries performed to increase, which has, in turn, driven up the total amount spent on cataract surgery.
Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage above?
a. Fifteen years ago, very few people had successful cataract surgery.
b. In the long term, the advantages of advanced medical technology will probably be out-weighed by the disadvantages.
c. The total amount spent on cataract surgery has increased because the increased number of people choosing to have the surgery more than offsets the decrease in cost per operation.
d. Fifteen years ago, cataract surgery was affordable for more people than it was last year.
5. All students at Jitnu College were asked to label themselves liberal, conservative or in-between politically. Of the students, 25 percent labeled themselves conservative, 24 percent labeled themselves liberal, and 51 percent labeled themselves in-between. When asked about a particular set of issues, however, 77 percent of the students endorsed what is generally regarded as a liberal position.
What would resolve the apparent discrepancy?
a. More students who labelled themselves in-between than students who labelled themselves liberal opposed what is defined as a liberal position on that set of issues.
b. The majority of students who labelled themselves in-between opposed what is defined as a liberal position on that set of issues.
c. Some students who labelled themselves liberal endorsed what is defined as a conservative position on that set of issues.
d. Some students who labelled themselves conservative endorsed what is defined as a liberal position on that set of issues.